Forensic Document Examiner Services
Forensic document examination is a complicated and complex area. Documents can range from handwritten letters to typed business communications to credit card receipts and much more.
Mobile Forensic Laboratory
Cina Wong has a mobile laboratory which allows her to collect evidence and conduct examinations anywhere in the world.
ESDA (Electrostatic Detection Apparatus)
When it comes to uncovering indented writing on a document or a pad of paper, one of the most effective approaches is to use an ESDA machine. It is a non-destructive method that transforms indented writing, into easily identifiable letters, words, numbers, or marks.
Chinese Handwriting Examination
Some handwriting experts believe they do not need additional knowledge in Chinese handwriting to make an accurate examination. Unfortunately, that is not true. They do not have an understanding in the basics of Chinese handwriting to determine the style of Chinese writing they are faced with, and to know whether they are utilizing comparable writing samples for the specific case. This over confidence can lead to errors.
Cina Wong was born in the USA, and is fluent in English. Additionally, she also has had 8 years of Chinese school. Cina Wong understands the foundation of Chinese handwriting to be able to conduct a thorough and accurate examination. She also has the unique ability to explain to an English-speaking jury how to see and understand how she came to her opinion.
Most Requested Examinations
Contested Wills /
Medical Directives /
Power of Attorneys
(sent through mail or graffiti on walls or structures)
Cina Wong provides a variety of non-destructive
Forensic Document Examiner Services
Click each service to learn more:
Do you believe a signature is a forgery? If the signature is indeed a forgery, it can be determined what method was used to create it. Whether the signature was: traced, emulated from an authentic signature, created without any knowledge of a known signature, or pasted on a document where only a photocopy of the document in question exists.
The elderly encounter a significant amount of fraud in their Wills. This is especially true in states where individuals are allowed to write a holographic (handwritten) Will. Most states require an attorney to draw up a Will, but in approximately 25 of the 50 states in the U.S., a person can write a Will on a paper towel and it can be considered valid.
Three common categories:
1. Cursive Handwriting
Also referred to as cursive or script. It is important to have a known cursive writing to compare to the questioned cursive writing to and not hand printed known writings to compare with the questioned cursive writing. An examination of various aspects of the writing can be compared to determine authenticity.
Many times, documents that come into question can contain printed writing. This questioned writing can be compared to known handprinted samples to determine authorship of questioned writing.
3.Print and Script Writing Combination
It is very common that some handwritings do not fall exclusively in the cursive or printed range. Some writings combine a mixture of both which is why it is called “print/script writing.”
Page Substitutions Verification
It may be necessary to determine whether a contract, last will and testament, or multi-page document has had a page substituted. Through various methods, we will be able to identify signs of page substitution if it has occurred.
A person can claim they signed a contract in 2001. However, after conducting a watermark search and/or requested paper analysis, it may be determined that the questioned document with the 2001 date and signature was actually produced after the purported 2001 date. Since the paper was produced after 2001, then it would be impossible for the contract to have existed in 2001.
Photocopy Fraud Examination
Too often, only a photocopy of a questioned document will exist. This may involve possible cut and paste of a signature or text. There are many legitimate reasons as to why the original document does not exist or is not accessible. In certain cases, the document is a contract that is produced with legitimate looking signatures of certain parties. One party claims they never signed the document, though the signature on the copy of the document looks like his signature. How could this happen? Through various methods, we can determine if a possible signature fraud was produced when a photocopy was made of a genuine signature and placed on another document the person never intended to sign.
Altered Numbers Determination
This includes determining if there have been additions, deletions, obliterations of numerals in writing. Sometimes it is unclear whether a number was innocently corrected or altered intentionally. Various techniques can be used to examine questioned numbers. Two methods consist of an examination involving UV/IR (ultraviolet infrared) light.
Erased or Obliterated / Altered Writing Determination
There are circumstances where writing or a dollar amount has been ‘altered’ on a check through erasure, crossing out with an ink pen, or the utilization of a product like White Out. These alteration techniques have also been executed on other documents such as: contracts, medical records, correspondence, invoices, timesheets, and legal documents. Depending on the nature of the alteration, there are techniques that can help to identify the original writing.
Rubber Stamped Signature Authentication
Not all signatures are written with an ink pen. Some are created with the impression of a rubber stamp. An examination under a microscope will show whether a signature was signed or stamped.
Notary Stamp Validity
Often times, many people will accept a document as being authentic because it is notarized. A thorough examination and investigation may show whether the notary stamp is genuine, fraudulently created, or possibly purchased at an estate sale when the original notary passed away.
Anonymous Letter Examination
Did you receive a threatening letter? Or perhaps received three dozen magazine subscriptions and accompanying invoices? If there is a suspect, their handwriting can be compared to the anonymous letter or magazine subscription postcards to determine whether they were involved in authoring the anonymous writings.
Disguised Writing Examination
By comparing known writings of possible individuals to the disguised writing, an author may be able to be determined.
Graffiti on Walls or Scratched into Cars
Sometimes writing is not confined to paper. On various occasions, there have been cases where disguised writing has appeared on bathroom walls/stalls, school hallways, and even scratched into the side of cars. Especially in a work or school environment, this can be very disrupting if the message is racial or threatening. By comparing known writings of possible individuals to the disguised writing, an author may be able to be determined.
Altered Medical or Business Record Examination
Sequential writing is where sentences or whole pages of writing are added to a group of documents at a later date. This type of alteration occurs commonly on medical records, business reports and holographic wills. Additional alterations that can be found on questioned medical records are erased writing, altered numbers and missing pages. Using an electrostatic detection apparatus (ESDA machine), writing from those missing pages can possibly be identified on existing pages.
Indented Writing Examination
Indented writing is writing that leaves indentations on pages that were underneath the original writing. This writing may be illegible to the human eye, but we have an Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA) machine that can develop the writing without harming the original document.
Other Documents Cina Wong Examines
- Bomb Threat Notes
- Bank Robbery Notes
- Corporate Minutes
- Insurance Beneficiary Forms
- Computer Printed / Faxed / Typed
- Last Will and Testaments
- Real Estate Related Documents
Cina is available to speak about:
- “The Elderly & Forgery Abuse”
- “How to Protect your Business from your Employees”
- “Forgery Fraudsters”
All lectures include a mini course in forensic document examination.
Cina has presented for organizations such as:
- IBM (Raleigh, North Carolina)
- Certified Fraud Examiners
- First Virginia Bank
- Old Dominion University
- Virginia State Criminal Justice Department Conference (Virginia Beach, VA)
- William & Mary College – Master’s Program
- Texas Criminal Defense Lawyers Association